Gynecomastia surgery is a procedure to remove excess fat, glandular tissue and/or skin from overdeveloped or enlarged male breasts. In severe cases of gynecomastia, the weight of excess breast tissue may cause the breasts to sag and stretch the areola (the dark skin surrounding the nipple). In these cases, the position and size of the areola can be surgically improved and excess skin may need to be reduced, leading to additional scarring. Gynecomastia may result from hormonal changes, heredity, disease, or the use of certain drugs, and can present unilaterally (one breast) or bilaterally (both breasts). There are a variety of different techniques used by plastic surgeons to treat gynecomastia. There is often a more solid breast tissue under the areola that may require excision and biopsy as well as additional fatty tissue around the chest often better removed with liposuction techniques. Breast cancer can occur in males, although less frequently than in females, and the solid tissue removed may require pathologic evaluation. Gynecomastia surgery can be combined with other forms of body-contouring surgery, including liposuction, or performed at the same time with other elective surgeries.